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Antifungal Drugs: Technologies and Global Markets

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LONDON, July 9, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- Reportbuyer.com has added a new market research report:

Antifungal Drugs : Technologies and Global Markets

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This report aims to determine the current status of the global human antifungal market and assess its growth potential over the five-year period from 2013 through 2018. It covers approved human therapeutics along with focusing on therapeutics in early development. The key objective is to present an in-depth analysis of the current human antifungal market and to explore its future direction. Projections of trends and compound annual growth rate (CAGRs) through 2018 are also provided.

Use this report to:
- Receive an in-depth analysis of the current human antifungal market and explore its future direction
- Receive information on industry applications of antifungal medicinal therapeutics.
- Receive information on human antifungal agents.
- Receive information on government regulations concerning the industry.

Highlights
- The global market for human antifungal therapeutics reached nearly $11.6 billion in 2012 and $11.8 billion in 2013. This market is expected to grow to nearly $13.9 billion in 2018 with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3.2% over the five-year period from 2013 to 2018.
- The U.S. human antifungal therapeutics market reached nearly $4.9 billion in 2013. It is projected to grow to $5.5 billion in 2018 with a CAGR of 2.7% over the five-year period from 2013 to 2018.
- The Europe human antifungal therapeutics market reached $3.9 billion in 2013. It is projected to grow to $4.4 billion in 2018 with a CAGR of 2.6% over the five-year period from 2013 to 2018.

INTRODUCTION

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
The goal of BCC Research in conducting this study was to determine the current status of the global human antifungal market and assess its growth potential over the
five-year period from 2013 to 2018. This report covers approved human therapeutics, with a heavy focus on therapeutics in early development. These new molecular and
biological entities are from traditional pharmaceutical sources, naturally derived synthetic chemicals and biological sources as well as the "herbal natural folk medicine"
marketplace. If an approved or well-known medicine is being studied in combination with another molecular entity, it is considered a new therapy and often has been
included for review. New drug and patent applications are presented as the study focuses on new methods of drug administration, drug clinical trials, and discovery and
development.

It should be noted that there is a strong emphasis on early research due to the critical need for new and more effective medicines; hence, BCC Research is including a section
of medicines intended for human utilization that are in clinical testing as well as information on new and novel in vitro therapies. Greater than 98% of medicines at the
preclinical level are terminated prior to their utilization in humans, and the research in this area is vast. We are limiting this research to therapies that depict a positive resultor that represent a very rare and novel approach worthy of further review from R&D groups.

Our key objective in this report is to present an in-depth analysis of the current human antifungal market and to explore its future direction. In the last five years there has
been a decrease in the number of patent applications filed in this area. Between 1990 and 1999 there were six U.S. patents granted-evidence of the evolution of drug
resistance and an increasing mortality rate.[1],[2]

REASONS FOR DOING THIS STUDY
Fungi are highly resistant microbiological eukaryotic microorganisms. In other words, they are becoming drug-resistant to the approved compounds and some therapies
later in clinical development. The therapies are designed to eradicate these fungi through the various antifungal mechanisms of action, such as disrupting reproductive
capabilities, destroying cell walls or modifying fungal DNA and cell functioning. It is a given fact that infestations in humans, animals, plants and the environment are on the
rise, with many having lethal consequences in both the immunocompetent and the immunocompromised. That being the case, BCC Research was particularly interested
in examining the antifungal market growth of developing products depicting efficacy.

We are including data regarding the market shift for those products that are now relegated to over-the-counter (OTC) status that previously had only been provided by
prescription; moreover, we will identify new antifungal research, development, new drug applications and novel approaches to the market.

Previously, BCC Research examined the antifungal market in its 2003 report, PHM029A The Market for Antifungal Drugs, in PHM029B Global Markets for Antifungal Agents and
in PHM029C Antifungal Drugs: Technologies and Global Markets. Due to the rapidly changing market, BCC Research chose to reexamine the marketplace through another
analysis and project its new growth potential. Additionally, PHM029A focused only on human fungal diseases and associated antifungals; PHM029B incorporated the
marketplace for antifungals in the veterinary, agricultural and environmental industries; and PHM029C and PHM029D focused on human therapeutics with an intensive focus on human therapeutics in the developmental pipeline. PHM029E is an update of PHM029D.

INTENDED AUDIENCE
This report was prepared as a study of the global antifungal marketplace based on fungal infections and infestations with a focus on human therapeutics. Information is
presented on the antifungal industry in general, specific pharmaceuticals and chemical agents, new technology within the market, new and novel drug applications and
market-related issues. In many cases actual revenue is given for the period of 2012 and 2013, with projections of trends and compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) 2013
through 2018.

This study will be of significant interest to hospitals, pharmacies, pharmaceutical companies, biopharmaceutical researchers, pharmaceutical company directors and
marketing executives, contract research organizations (CROs), chemists, physicians, nurses, physician assistants, product managers and representatives, and all manner of
institutional directors ranging from nursing homes and schools to long-term-care facilities both public and private. It will also be of interest to biologists and those
interested in the field of mycology.

SCOPE OF REPORT
This study examines human applications both currently marketed and in the development of antifungal technologies. In an extensive analysis, BCC Research
examines each market segment, presents its current market status and offers various forecasts for growth over the next five years. Other factors such as Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) restrictions, government legislation, fungal resistance and changes in consumerism such as a greater demand for OTC medications and/or natural
and alternative remedies are also highlighted. Our financial and sales analysis focuses on the available figures from 2012 to 2013, with estimates for 2018, including CAGR as
a percentage.

METHODOLOGY
Through an extensive industry survey inclusive of online database searches of industry-specific data sources coupled with financial, trade, government and marketing
database sources as well as interviews via correspondence or telephone with independent sources comprising companies, government agencies and academic
experts, BCC Research was able to compile data to present our analysis of the antifungal market by market segment.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THIS STUDY 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
SCOPE OF REPORT 3
METHODOLOGY 4
INFORMATION SOURCES 4
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 4
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 4
DISCLAIMER 5

CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 7
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR HUMAN ANTIFUNGAL
THERAPEUTICS, BY GEOGRAPHIC REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 7
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR HUMAN ANTIFUNGAL
THERAPEUTICS, BY GEOGRAPHIC REGION, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 8

CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 10
HISTORY AND CURRENT STATE OF ANTIFUNGALS 10
TYPES OF PATHOGENIC FUNGI 11
DEFINITION OF THE INDUSTRY 11
CONCEPTS IN THE INDUSTRY 11
IMPORTANCE OF THE INDUSTRY 12
PRODUCT LIFE CYCLES 13
TABLE 1 DRUG DEVELOPMENT LIFECYCLE FOLLOWING DISCOVERY OF NEW DRUG 14
DEVELOPMENT OF ANTIFUNGALS 14
FDA-APPROVED ANTIFUNGALS 15
AZOLE ANTIFUNGALS 15
ECHINOCANDINS 16
POLYENES 16
ALLYLAMINES 16
MISCELLANEOUS ANTIFUNGALS 16
FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS 16
HUMAN CLINICAL DEVELOPMENT, 2011 TO 2013 17
NEW DRUG ACTIVITY 18
TABLE 2 CLINICAL TRIALS OF ALL ANTIFUNGAL DRUG THERAPIES AND
COMBINATIONS BY ALL DATE FIELDS, 2011-2013 (NUMBER) 18
TABLE 3 SELECTED GLOBAL CLINICAL TRIALS OF ALL ANTIFUNGAL DRUG
THERAPIES THAT EITHER ARE COMPLETED OR ESTIMATED TO BE COMPLETED
BETWEEN 2009 AND 2013 (NUMBER)
19
ACTIVE OR COMPLETED STUDIES POSTED OR UPDATED, 2009 TO 2013 19
TABLE 4 SELECTED ACTIVE OR COMPLETED STUDIES, 2009 TO 2014 19

CHAPTER 4 INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS OF ANTIFUNGAL
MEDICINAL THERAPEUTICS 23
SCOPE OF APPLICATIONS: HUMAN HEALTHCARE 23
HUMAN FUNGAL INFECTIONS 24
RISK FACTORS FOR DEVELOPING FUNGAL INFECTIONS 25
TABLE 5 RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH HUMAN FUNGAL INFECTIONS 26
FUNGAL SPECIES THAT CAUSE INFECTION IN HUMANS 27
Candidiasis 27
Some Basic Facts about Candida Infections 27
Cutaneous Candidiasis 30
Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis 30
GI Tract Candidiasis 30
Respiratory Tract Candidiasis 30
Genitourinary Tract Candidiasis 31
Hepatosplenic Candidiasis 31
Systemic Candidiasis 31
Candidemia 31
Disseminated Candidiasis 32
Aspergillosis 33
Blastomycosis 34
Coccidioidomycosis 34
Cryptococcosis 36
Dermatophytosis 37
Histoplasmosis 38
Onychomycosis 39
Paracoccidioidomycosis 40
Pseudallescheriasis 40
Sporotrichosis 41
Zygomycosis 41
TABLE 6 INCIDENCE OF COMMON FUNGAL DISEASES 43
MORE RARE FUNGAL INFECTIONS AND DISORDERS 43
Literature Review 44
FUNGAL DRUG RESISTANCE 45
CURRENT DRUG RESISTANCE TOPICS: A GLOBAL VIEW 45
MDR SPECIES 46
Literature Review 48
TABLE 7 COMMON REASONS FOR FUNGAL RESISTANCE 49
STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE RESPONSE AND DECREASE MORTALITY 50
Literature Review 50

CHAPTER 5 HUMAN ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS 53
TABLE 8 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR HUMAN ANTIFUNGAL CONSUMPTION BY
PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 53
CLASSES OF ANTIFUNGALS 53
ECHINOCANDINS 53
Literature Review 54
AZOLES 54
Literature Review 55
POLYENES 55
Literature Review 55
OTHER 56
TABLE 9 GLOBAL PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL PHARMACEUTICAL SALES –
TRIAZOLES AND ECHINOCANDINS VERSUS OTHER ANTIFUNGALS, THROUGH 2018
($ MILLIONS)
56
TABLE 10 PHARMACEUTICAL ANTIFUNGALS BY CLASS/MECHANISM OF ACTION (%) 57
FIGURE 1 PERCENTAGE OF RECOGNIZED ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS (%) 57
TABLE 11 MAJOR ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS BY CLASS AND AVERAGE SALES PRICE PER
DOSAGE, 2013 58
TABLE 12 FUNGAL INFECTION AND TRADITIONAL PHARMACEUTICAL REMEDY 58
TABLE 13 TYPES OF CANDIDAL INFECTION AND PHARMACEUTICAL TREATMENT 60
SIDE EFFECTS 60
TABLE 14 LIFE-THREATENING SIDE EFFECTS FROM ANTIFUNGAL
PHARMACEUTICALS 62
OTC ANTIFUNGAL PREPARATIONS 62
TABLE 15 COMMON FUNGAL INFECTIONS AND OTC ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION 64
NATURAL ANTIFUNGAL REMEDIES 64
TYPES OF NATURAL ANTIFUNGAL REMEDIES 65
Herbal Remedies 66
Enzyme-Based Antifungal Agents 66
TABLE 16 COMMON NATURAL ANTIFUNGALS 68
SUMMARY OF SELECTED NATURAL ANTIFUNGALS 68
Aloe 68
Literature Review 69
Curcumin 70
Literature Review 70
Mint 70
Literature Review 71
Wild Marjoram 71
Literature Review 71
Radish 72
Literature Review 72
Parnafungins 73
Literature Review 73
Ginseng 74
Literature Review 74
Walnut 74
Literature Review 74
Pau d'arco 75
Literature Review 75
Garlic 75
Literature Review 75
Grapefruit Seed 76
Literature Review 76
Olive Leaf 76
Literature Review 76
Goldenseal 77
Literature Review 77
Oregano 77
Literature Review 77
Tea Tree 78
Literature Review 78
NATURAL REMEDIES IN EARLIER DEVELOPMENT 78
Literature Review 79
TABLE 17 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR HUMAN OTC AND ALTERNATIVE
ANTIFUNGAL CONSUMPTION BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 80
LABORATORY TESTING AND HISTOPATHOLOGY FOR FUNGAL INFECTIONS
IN HUMANS 81
Specimen Examination 81
Cultures 81
Blood Serology 81
OTC/ALTERNATIVE HEALTHCARE APPROACHES TO TESTING AND
DIAGNOSIS OF FUNGAL INFECTIONS 82
CAM Testing and Specialized Laboratories 82
Questionnaire for Symptoms 83
New Developments 83

CHAPTER 6 COMMON ENVIRONMENTAL FUNGI 85
MOLDS AND THE HUMAN ISSUES THEY PRODUCE 85
WHY ENVIRONMENTAL MOLD IS A UNIQUE PROBLEM 86
HEALTH RISKS DUE TO ENVIRONMENTAL FUNGI AND MOLD 87
TABLE 18 COMMON HEALTH SYMPTOMS BASED ON ENVIRONMENTAL FUNGI AND
MOLDS 88
TABLE 19 RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATION WITH ENVIRONMENTAL MOLD REACTIONS 89
TABLE 20 COMMON SOURCE LOCATIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MOLDS 89
ENVIRONMENTAL MOLDS 90
ALTERNARIA 90
Literature Review 90
ASPERGILLUS 91
Literature Review 91
CLADOSPORIUM 92
Literature Review 92
PENICILLIUM 93
Literature Review 93
EUROTIUM 94
Literature Review 94
RHIZOPUS 94
Literature Review 94
MUCOR 95
Literature Review 95
GEOTRICHUM 96
Literature Review 96
FUSARIUM 96
Literature Review 96
STACHYBOTRYS 97
Literature Review 97
WALLEMIA 97
Literature Review 98
TRICHOTHECIUM 98
Literature Review 98
SCOPULARIOPSIS BREVICAULIS 98
Literature Review 98
SCYTALIDIUM DIMIDIATUM 99
Literature Review 99
TRICHODERMA 100
Literature Review 100
PAECILOMYCES VARIOTII 101
Literature Review 101

CHAPTER 7 GOVERNMENT REGULATORY AGENCIES AND PROFESSIONAL
ASSOCIATIONS 103
GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS 103
FDA 103
TABLE 21 SELECTED ANTIFUNGAL WARNING LETTERS FOR THE HUMAN SEGMENT
FROM THE FDA TO MANUFACTURERS, 1997–2014 104
EPA 111
USDA 112
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS 112
PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS 113
MEDICAL AND VETERINARY ASSOCIATIONS 113
AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATIONS 113
OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL ASSOCIATIONS 113

CHAPTER 8 ANTIFUNGAL COMPANIES 115
HUMAN HEALTHCARE 115
MANUFACTURERS OF PRESCRIPTION PHARMACEUTICALS 115
TABLE 22 MAJOR GLOBAL MANUFACTURERS OF ANTIFUNGAL PHARMACEUTICALS
FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION 115
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL ANTIFUNGAL PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURERS BY COUNTRY
(%) 116
MAJOR PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURER PROFILES 116
TABLE 23 COMPETITIVE MARKET SHARE BY PERCENT, 2013 (%) 117
FIGURE 3 COMPETITIVE MARKET SHARE BY PERCENT, 2013 (%) 117
Astellas Pharma Inc. 117
Bayer HealthCare 118
Enzon Pharmaceuticals 118
Galderma Pharma SA/Galderma SA 119
Gilead Sciences Inc. 119
Novartis International AG 119
Pfizer Inc. 120
Taro Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd. 120
Taro USA Inc. 120
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd. 120
Valeant Pharmaceuticals 121
OTC ANTIFUNGAL MANUFACTURERS 121
PHARMACEUTICAL OTC MARKET 122
TABLE 24 MAJOR HUMAN OTC ANTIFUNGAL MANUFACTURERS AND PRODUCTS 122
MAJOR PHARMACEUTICAL-BASED OTC MANUFACTURER PROFILES 122
Alva-Amco Pharmacal 122
Blaine Labs 123
Dartmouth Pharmaceuticals 123
Kramer Consumer Healthcare 123
Novartis International AG 124
McNeil Consumer Healthcare 124
PEDiNOL Pharmacal, Inc. 124
Perrigo Company plc 125
Stiefel Laboratories, Inc 125
Tarmac Products 126
ALTERNATIVE OTC MANUFACTURERS 126
TABLE 25 COMMONLY AVAILABLE ALTERNATIVE ANTIFUNGALS 126
MAJOR ALTERNATIVE OTC MANUFACTURER PROFILES 127
Crystal Star Herbal Nutrition 127
Enzymedica 127
Forest Herbs Research Ltd. 127
Garden of Life 128
King Bio 128
Life Entension Nutrition Center 128
Michael's Naturopathic Programs 129
Nature's Plus 129
NOW Foods 129
Nutrition Now 130
PROSymbiotics 130
Pure Essence Laboratories 130
Rainbow Light 131
Renew Life 131
Solaray 131
Vitanica 132

CHAPTER 9 ANTIFUNGAL INDUSTRY 134
ANTIFUNGAL MARKET TRENDS: HUMAN HEALTHCARE 134
ACCELERATING ANTIFUNGAL DRUG DEVELOPMENT 134
TABLE 26 NEW PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGALS, 2005 TO MARCH 2014 135
INCREASED TYPES OF TESTING 136
Need to Increase Use and Acceptance of Newer Drugs 136
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH - CLINICAL TRIALS PERFORMED AND SELECTED
PRECLINICAL AND IN VIVO STUDIES 137
A GENERAL OVERVIEW OF NONPHARMACEUTICAL ANTIFUNGAL
TECHNOLOGIES 138
Laser and Photodynamic Therapy 138
Studies 138
Literature Review 138
mAbs 139
Diagnostics and Assays 139
Literature Review 140
Computer Modeling Technology 140
Literature Review 140
R&D SECTION: AN OVERVIEW OF PRODUCTS IN DEVELOPMENT 141
TABLE 27 ANTIFUNGALS IN DEVELOPMENT 142
TRENDS IN CLASS USED AND ADMINISTRATION METHOD 142
TABLE 28 PHARMACEUTICAL ANTIFUNGALS BY ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION 2013
(%) 143
FIGURE 4 PHARMACEUTICAL ANTIFUNGALS BY ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION, 2013
(%) 143
TABLE 29 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR ANTIFUNGAL PRODUCTS BY ROUTE OF
ADMINISTRATION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 144
UTILIZATION OF OTC AND NATURAL/ALTERNATIVE ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS 144
Shifting the Market from Prescription to OTC 144
Market Demand for OTC Products 144

CHAPTER 10 PATENT ANALYSIS 147
PURPOSE OF A PATENT ANALYSIS 147
DUE CARE IN REVIEWING THE PATENT ANALYSIS 147
NEW ANTIFUNGAL PATENTS ISSUED 148
TABLE 30 U.S. ANTIFUNGAL PATENT TRENDS, 1990–2013 148
TABLE 31 SELECTED NEW U.S. ANTIFUNGAL PATENTS ISSUED 2007-2013 149
TABLE 32 ASSIGNEES OF TWO OR MORE U.S. PATENTS FOR ANTIFUNGAL
PRODUCTS, 2007–2013 151
TABLE 33 U.S. PATENT TRENDS BY COUNTRY, 2007–2013 (NO. OF PATENTS/%) 152
FIGURE 5 U.S. PATENT TRENDS BY COUNTRY, 2007-2013 (%) 152
TRENDS IN PATENT APPLICATIONS 153
TABLE 34 U.S. PATENT APPLICATIONS BY ANTIFUNGAL MECHANISM OF ACTION,
2007-2013 (NO./%) 153
FIGURE 6 U.S. PATENT APPLICATIONS BY ANTIFUNGAL MECHANISM OF ACTION,
2007 THROUGH 2013 (%) 153
TABLE 35 NEW U.S. PATENT APPLICATIONS, 2007–2013 154
TABLE 36 RECENT TRENDS IN PATENT APPLICATIONS FOR ANTIFUNGALS BY
MECHANISM OF ACTION, 2007-2013 160
TABLE 37 U.S. PATENT APPLICATION TRENDS BY COUNTRY, 2007-2013 (NO. OF
PATENTS/%) 160
FIGURE 7 U.S. ANTIFUNGAL PATENT APPLICATIONS BY COUNTRY 2007-2013 (%) 160
PATENT EXPIRATIONS 161
TABLE 38 PATENT EXPIRATIONS 2006-2018 162
CHAPTER 11 APPENDIX 164
TABLE 39 PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES 164


LIST OF TABLES


SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR HUMAN ANTIFUNGAL
THERAPEUTICS, BY GEOGRAPHIC REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 7
TABLE 1 DRUG DEVELOPMENT LIFECYCLE FOLLOWING DISCOVERY OF NEW DRUG 14
TABLE 2 CLINICAL TRIALS OF ALL ANTIFUNGAL DRUG THERAPIES AND
COMBINATIONS BY ALL DATE FIELDS, 2011-2013 (NUMBER) 18
TABLE 3 SELECTED GLOBAL CLINICAL TRIALS OF ALL ANTIFUNGAL DRUG THERAPIES
THAT EITHER ARE COMPLETED OR ESTIMATED TO BE COMPLETED BETWEEN 2009
AND 2013 (NUMBER)
19
TABLE 4 SELECTED ACTIVE OR COMPLETED STUDIES, 2009 TO 2014 19
TABLE 5 RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH HUMAN FUNGAL INFECTIONS 26
TABLE 6 INCIDENCE OF COMMON FUNGAL DISEASES 43
TABLE 7 COMMON REASONS FOR FUNGAL RESISTANCE 49
TABLE 8 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR HUMAN ANTIFUNGAL CONSUMPTION BY
PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 53
TABLE 9 GLOBAL PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGAL PHARMACEUTICAL SALES –
TRIAZOLES AND ECHINOCANDINS VERSUS OTHER ANTIFUNGALS, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS)
56
TABLE 10 PHARMACEUTICAL ANTIFUNGALS BY CLASS/MECHANISM OF ACTION (%) 57
TABLE 11 MAJOR ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS BY CLASS AND AVERAGE SALES PRICE PER
DOSAGE, 2013 58
TABLE 12 FUNGAL INFECTION AND TRADITIONAL PHARMACEUTICAL REMEDY 58
TABLE 13 TYPES OF CANDIDAL INFECTION AND PHARMACEUTICAL TREATMENT 60
TABLE 14 LIFE-THREATENING SIDE EFFECTS FROM ANTIFUNGAL PHARMACEUTICALS 62
TABLE 15 COMMON FUNGAL INFECTIONS AND OTC ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION 64
TABLE 16 COMMON NATURAL ANTIFUNGALS 68
TABLE 17 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR HUMAN OTC AND ALTERNATIVE
ANTIFUNGAL CONSUMPTION BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 80
TABLE 18 COMMON HEALTH SYMPTOMS BASED ON ENVIRONMENTAL FUNGI AND
MOLDS 88
TABLE 19 RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATION WITH ENVIRONMENTAL MOLD REACTIONS 89
TABLE 20 COMMON SOURCE LOCATIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MOLDS 89
TABLE 21 SELECTED ANTIFUNGAL WARNING LETTERS FOR THE HUMAN SEGMENT
FROM THE FDA TO MANUFACTURERS, 1997–2014 104
TABLE 22 MAJOR GLOBAL MANUFACTURERS OF ANTIFUNGAL PHARMACEUTICALS
FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION 115
TABLE 23 COMPETITIVE MARKET SHARE BY PERCENT, 2013 (%) 117
TABLE 24 MAJOR HUMAN OTC ANTIFUNGAL MANUFACTURERS AND PRODUCTS 122
TABLE 25 COMMONLY AVAILABLE ALTERNATIVE ANTIFUNGALS 126
TABLE 26 NEW PRESCRIPTION ANTIFUNGALS, 2005 TO MARCH 2014 135
TABLE 27 ANTIFUNGALS IN DEVELOPMENT 142
TABLE 28 PHARMACEUTICAL ANTIFUNGALS BY ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION 2013 (%) 143
TABLE 29 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR ANTIFUNGAL PRODUCTS BY ROUTE OF
ADMINISTRATION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 144
TABLE 30 U.S. ANTIFUNGAL PATENT TRENDS, 1990–2013 148
TABLE 31 SELECTED NEW U.S. ANTIFUNGAL PATENTS ISSUED 2007-2013 149
TABLE 32 ASSIGNEES OF TWO OR MORE U.S. PATENTS FOR ANTIFUNGAL PRODUCTS,
2007–2013 151
TABLE 33 U.S. PATENT TRENDS BY COUNTRY, 2007–2013 (NO. OF PATENTS/%) 152
TABLE 34 U.S. PATENT APPLICATIONS BY ANTIFUNGAL MECHANISM OF ACTION,
2007-2013 (NO./%) 153
TABLE 35 NEW U.S. PATENT APPLICATIONS, 2007–2013 154
TABLE 36 RECENT TRENDS IN PATENT APPLICATIONS FOR ANTIFUNGALS BY
MECHANISM OF ACTION, 2007-2013 160
TABLE 37 U.S. PATENT APPLICATION TRENDS BY COUNTRY, 2007-2013 (NO. OF
PATENTS/%) 160
TABLE 38 PATENT EXPIRATIONS 2006-2018 162
TABLE 39 PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES 164


LIST OF FIGURES


SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR HUMAN ANTIFUNGAL
THERAPEUTICS, BY GEOGRAPHIC REGION, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 8
FIGURE 1 PERCENTAGE OF RECOGNIZED ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS (%) 57
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL ANTIFUNGAL PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURERS BY COUNTRY
(%) 116
FIGURE 3 COMPETITIVE MARKET SHARE BY PERCENT, 2013 (%) 117
FIGURE 4 PHARMACEUTICAL ANTIFUNGALS BY ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION, 2013 (%) 143
FIGURE 5 U.S. PATENT TRENDS BY COUNTRY, 2007-2013 (%) 152
FIGURE 6 U.S. PATENT APPLICATIONS BY ANTIFUNGAL MECHANISM OF ACTION,
2007 THROUGH 2013 (%) 153
FIGURE 7 U.S. ANTIFUNGAL PATENT APPLICATIONS BY COUNTRY 2007-2013 (%) 160


Read the full report:
Antifungal Drugs : Technologies and Global Markets

https://www.reportbuyer.com/product/2212016/Antifungal-Drugs--Technologies-and-Global-Markets.html

For more information:
Sarah Smith
Research Advisor at Reportbuyer.com
Email: query@reportbuyer.com
Tel: +44 208 816 85 48
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